Friday, December 8, 2017

Brexit 'deal agreed' - But is it a good deal for the UK?



This is a voyage into the unknown which was always going to be complex and challenging. The terms of the divorce were never going to be amicable as Europe cannot be seen to make it easy for the UK as they will clearly want to discourage other European nations from going down a similar road

Source: European Union Experts
As a member of the British public I am becoming increasingly frustrated by the constant messages coming out of Westminster and Brussels about Brexit. Like most people, I am not party to the Brexit negotiations, so I have to make do with the scraps of information that are constantly thrown at me through the media, which basically tell me nothing.  All we seem to be hearing is that ‘Britain has made concessions on this and concessions on that’. We hear today that the UK and EU have now agreed a deal for stage one of the negotiations, but how do we know if it is a good deal or not? Have the EU made any concessions? When I think of the Brexit negotiations I get the image of a vulnerable British rabbit encircled by 27 European wolves all waiting to pounce on every whimper that the rabbit makes, until it reaches a point where the rabbit is terrified into conceding for fear of being attacked by the wolves. What I want to know is where is the British Lion that will stand its ground, fight its corner and keep the wolves at bay?

At this moment in time, above everything what we need is strong leadership. You may not like Donald Trump or agree with his approach to politics or agree with his policies, however, there is no doubt that he is in charge and that he is not prepared to be messed around. Teresa May continually told us that she wanted to 'strengthen her hand' with Europe and so she called a 'snap' election. This must rate as one of the biggest misjudgements in British political history because, instead of strengthening her hand she ended up cutting one of them off!  With the hand that remained she had to hold out the begging bowl to the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) in order to secure a very slim overall Parliamentary majority. The European Union must have laughed its socks off in the knowledge that they would now be negotiating with a wounded Prime Minister, with limited power who faced opposition from all corners including her own party. Not exactly the strong leadership that we need, is it?

Source: Sheet Plant Association
Whether people voted remain or leave is now irrelevant, that debate and that ship has now sailed. There is no point in dwelling on this because on Thursday 23rd June 2016 51.9% of the British public decided to leave Europe, and at 11pm on Friday 29th March 2019 the UK will leave Europe. The triggering of Article 50 seemed to take forever as we were told that the UK wanted to be as ‘prepared’ as we could before giving formal notice to Europe that we would be parting ways. It took nearly nine months from the referendum before Article 50 was finally triggered on 29th March 2017, giving us two further years to ‘negotiate’ a divorce. This is a voyage into the unknown which was always going to be complex and challenging. The terms of the divorce were never going to be amicable as Europe cannot be seen to make it easy for the UK as they will clearly want to discourage other European nations from going down a similar road.

The economy and particularly trade are topics that continually arise as British industry tries to work out the impact of what Brexit will actually mean for imports/exports and to them and their business in a wider context. Again, the EU ‘dictated’ that the next stage of discussions (including trade) could not take place until we have dealt with three key issues; the rights of EU nationals living in the UK, the financial terms of the exit package and agreement of how to deal with the border between Northern and the Republic of Ireland. You would think with all of the UK concessions we have been hearing (which we have no real details about) that negotiations would have moved much quicker however, to the contrary, we are seeing headlines such as; ‘We can't go on like this': mood of resignation in EU as Brexit talks stutter’ in the Guardian (December 5th 2017) (Link). Within the article the current confusion and chaos around Brexit is summed up by a Finnish MEP; ‘the government’s weakness was 'a key question' for the EU. 'We are also in a very difficult position because it would not be in our interests to see the whole thing fall apart', 'At the same time … it’s not our duty to help the British government in a negotiation that is between them and us. The bottom line is that the May government is facing an impossible task', adding that promises made to British voters during the referendum campaign and before June’s snap election could not be kept. The government was in 'an ever-worsening, deteriorating cycle'.

It is a fact that there will be quite a number of years of ‘transition’ whether the UK strike a complete Brexit deal with the EU or not. It will take the UK and indeed European countries and their economies time to adjust as we get used to the reality of life without each other. Therefore, if we know and accept that there are some turbulent years ahead then the question arises of whether it is in the best interests of the UK to strike a deal with Europe that involves so many concessions that we are effectively still a European nation but without the ‘official membership’. There is plenty in the media about the implications of a ‘no deal scenario’ and yes, this would have serious implications.  In the Guardian (December 7th 2017) (Link) the House of Lords warn that a ‘no deal’ Brexit would be ‘the worst outcome possible’.  Well, maybe it would but at this point in time nobody really knows. What I would like to see and I’m sure many others would share this view, is a British Government that shows some fight, a British Government that stands up for Britain, a British Government than shows leadership and a British Government that provides confidence to the British people that they have a plan in whichever scenario plays out.  At present, all we see if confusion, discord and poor leadership which has reached a point where we have no idea what is going on. Sadly, this also seems to be the case for those negotiating Brexit on our behalf! What a sad state of affairs.

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Information/opinions posted on this site are the personal views of the author and should not be relied upon by any person or any third party without first seeking further professional advice

Monday, December 4, 2017

Why should we bother with Renewable Energy?



If you are hoping that in the future fuel costs will reach a peak and then start to reduce then I am afraid you are going to be bitterly disappointed. There may well be short term reductions, however it is inevitable that fuel costs will not only continue to rise, but rise significantly

Source: Business Standard
There is no shortage of media coverage in respect of the impact of global warming, climate change, energy conservation, sustainability, greenhouse gas emissions and so on........ Our understanding and concern about these issues will vary significantly from those who have a genuine concern about protecting the planet for future generations to those who’s work may be directly related to these issues, right through to those who know very little and even those who make a conscious choice to ignore them!  The problem however is that even if you are one of those who fall into the latter categories, it does not change the fact that you will be affected in exactly the same way as everyone else.  This is no more starkly demonstrated than in the increased cost of energy over recent years, which have soared to record levels.

Over the last two hundred years we have become dependent on fossil fuels such as gas, oil and coal, which has allowed us to develop our world at a staggering pace.  All of this development in terms of infrastructure, buildings and the like require large amount of energy, to heat, cool, ventilate, provide light and power etc.  If we are to maintain, or more likely increase the rate of development around the world then we also need to consider alternative ways of creating this energy. The problem with fossil fuels is that they are a depleting resource and at some point, in the future it will run out.  Now this is unlikely to happen in our generation or indeed generations in the foreseeable future, but one thing is for certain in that at some point, however far in the future, fossil fuels will become incredibly scarce and are likely to run out.  If you are under the impression that we should not be concerned about this now, as it will not have any major impact on us in our lifetime then think again!

Source: Daily Record
The problem with anything that is in short supply is that basic economical principles come into play.  Fossil fuels are a prime example of this. Remember they are a depleting resource and therefore a commodity in short supply.  The impact of this is that when demand is high (which it always is) and supply is limited (which it is), then market conditions allow energy providers to increase costs as they know that they are providing something that people actually need. The market then adjusts to these increased costs. The Guardian (November 2017) reports; ‘Gas and electricity companies have been the biggest culprits for raising prices over the past 20 years, according to an analysis published just a day after utility giant’s SSE and npower revealed plans for a mega-merger – prompting fears of yet more price rises. The research found that the cost of utilities has risen at triple the rate of inflation over the past two decades. The average rise in prices for a basket of goods between 1997 and 2016 was 50.7%, but utility bills went up by 139% – far outstripping the average 78% rise in weekly household income, which has gone up from £316 to £562 over the period’ (Link).

If you are hoping that in the future fuel costs will reach a peak and then start to reduce then I am afraid you are going to be bitterly disappointed. There may well be occasional short term reductions, however due to the economical principles described above it is inevitable that fuel cost will not only continue to rise, but rise significantly. Of course, the majority of articles that you will see in the media focus on the damage to the environment caused by greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon, from the burning of fossil fuels. This is something that we need to deal with immediately, however I would suggest that if you were to talk to most people on the high street they would be more concerned about the increase in fuel costs rather than the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The positive thing however, is that if we can create energy by using alternative renewable technologies then we can deal with both issues at the same time!

In future articles I will focus on the use of renewable technologies as a way of impacting on greenhouse gas emissions, however for the remainder of this article I will continue to demonstrate the financial effect of creating and using energy from fossil fuels, which is happening and impacting on us all right now!  The Committee on Fuel Poverty annual Report – October 2017 (Link), in its Executive Summary states; ‘The Department of Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS) Fuel Poverty Statistics published in 2017 report the number of households in fuel poverty has increased from 2.38 million in 2014 to 2.50 million in 2015 (the statistics provide data on a two-year time lag). The average fuel poverty gap (this is the average additional amount that fuel-poor households need to spend to meet their energy needs, compared to the national median spend) has only fallen £18 per year from £371 to £353’.  The reference to fuel poverty is defined by Poverty.org.uk (Link) as: ‘Households are considered by the Government to be in 'fuel poverty' if they would have to spend more than 10% of their household income on fuel to keep their home in a 'satisfactory' condition. It is thus a measure which compares income with what the fuel costs 'should be' rather than what they actually are.  Whether a household is in fuel poverty or not is determined by the interaction of a number of factors, but the three obvious ones are: The cost of energy, the energy efficiency of the property (and therefore, the energy required to heat and power the home) and Household income’.

It is abundantly clear that many in the UK are continuing to suffer financial hardship as a result of increasing energy costs, and unless we can find alternative ways of creating and conserving our energy, then this situation is likely to become even more critical. Increased demand for a depleting resource is a recipe for disaster. We therefore have to introduce alternatives, which is now a necessity not a choice. If you are in one of those categories described at the beginning of this article who have not really paid much attention to global issues, perhaps it is now time to think very carefully about how you individually, and all of us collectively can save energy as well as also being open to consider retrofitting of  new renewable technologies. This will not only provide benefits from a financial viewpoint, which may not be immediate (although costs associated with enhancements is an article in its own right!), but also from an environmental viewpoint, where we can start to have a real impact on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.


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Information/opinions posted on this site are the personal views of the author and should not be relied upon by any person or any third party without first seeking further professional advice.

Monday, June 13, 2016

Climate Change and Energy Efficiency – The Challenge of Tackling Older Buildings



Whether you have your own political views or are sceptical about government policy and initiatives it is important to embrace them as we only have the possibility of making a difference, if we are prepared ‘to give it a go’, after all, we have to start somewhere

Source: Source: http://www.cjhole.co.uk/news.html
Are you aware of the significant impact of climate change on our planet?  Are you aware of the major influence that those working in the built environment, could have in dealing with this very serious issue? Or, like many do you really care at all?  We are already experiencing the impact of climate change as a result of the way that we have used our planet to a point where many of these changes are now irreversible. The issue now is how we slow down the process and try to protect the environment for future generations. The Environment Agency website (Link), emphasises the human impact on our climate, and portray some very stark and worrying facts:

‘There is a scientific consensus that the recent observed rise in global temperature can only be explained by the rise in greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities.

Since the industrial revolution, human activity, mostly the burning of fossil fuels, has resulted in the release of large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This is enhancing the greenhouse effect and pushing up global temperatures.

Average global temperatures have already risen approximately one degree Celsius since pre-industrial levels, and even if we could stop emitting all greenhouse gases tomorrow, they would continue to rise by at least a further 0.6 degrees. Limiting temperature rise to below two degrees is the internationally agreed target to avert dangerous climate change.

There are clear signs that our world is warming. We’ve had markedly higher global average temperatures over the last decade, ice sheets and glaciers are melting and average river water temperatures are increasing. Globally, the hottest ten years on record have all been since 1990, and February 2010 was warmest on record for southern hemisphere’

Source: http://www.zmescience.com/ecology/environmental-issues
It is therefore clear that action is needed now and whether we like it or not, we must all play our part. Much of this action is actually imposed on us through legislation such as Building Regulations and other initiatives such Code for Sustainable Homes, BREEAM etc. which are primarily voluntary (although funding requirements may in effect make these mandatory). This is fine if we are dealing with new buildings, but how do we deal with the existing varied and largely energy inefficient building stock we have in the UK?  These are the types of buildings that waste a great deal of energy through older inefficient elements and therefore readily lose heat through the building fabric, requiring additional heating and therefore more energy to try to achieve acceptable internal temperatures.  If we make our buildings more thermally efficient, this heat energy is retained longer in the building, therefore reducing the amount of additional heating we need and subsequently reduces our reliance on fossil fuels.

According to BBC News (2006), ‘Transport consistently grabs the headlines on climate change emissions but buildings pour out about half of the UK's CO2 - 30% from homes, 20% from commercial buildings’.  The Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) completed an assessment of a variety of impacts of various sectors may need to prepare, which included the Built Environment: ‘The UK’s built environment includes: 27 million homes, commercial and industrial properties, hospitals, schools, other buildings and the wider urban environment. At the current replacement rate, around 70% of buildings that will be in use in the 2050's already exist. It is clear therefore that those working in the built environment have the opportunity of influencing the impact of climate change in all sectors including both new build and existing buildings. This has also been emphasised by the UK government’s commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% (from the 1990 baseline) by 2050 under the Climate Change Act 2008. In order to achieve this it is necessary to significantly reduce our reliance on depleting resources such as fossil fuels (which emit high quantities of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon) and consider the use of more energy efficient and low carbon ways of creating energy (renewable technologies), making our buildings more thermally efficient in addition to educating people to operate and use buildings more efficiently. This is fundamental to achieving a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and necessary if we are to stand any chance of meeting our targets.

The government have set a strategy with the objective of achieving the targets set within the Climate Change Act 2008 (Link). Whether you have your own political views or are sceptical about government policy and initiatives it is important to embrace these policies as we only have the possibility of making a difference, if we are prepared ‘to give it a go’, after all, we have to start somewhere.  It is ok to be sceptical, however until policies and initiatives are introduced and tested we have no way of knowing whether they will work or not. I along with many others raised issues with the now demised Green Deal, however I have also gone onto state that I think in principle Green Deal was a good idea undoubtedly needed some re-adjustment to make it more effective. The important thing here is that the UK government decided to tackle poor energy efficiency in existing buildings. However, trying to encourage people to incorporate energy efficient measures and renewable technologies into their buildings is always going to be difficult for a number of reasons.  

The Green Deal worked on the basis of a low interest loan which is added to fuel bills, for energy efficient enhancements which were recommended by a Green Deal Assessor. The ‘golden rule’ then assumed that the repayments on the loan would not exceed the savings made on the energy bills, therefore the bill payer/s should not notice any difference in the amount they were are paying each month. 

There is also constructional detailing issues in respect of retrofitting existing and occupied buildings to increase thermal efficiency and also issues in respect of introducing and installing renewable technologies. Once installation of enhancements has been completed it is also necessary to ‘educate’ occupiers to help them to understand how to use them.  It is pointless increasing thermal efficiency and installing new technologies into a building if the occupier continues to waste energy because they don’t understand how to use the system correctly.  Again, this emphasises the need for a holistic approach to dealing with energy efficiency in existing buildings rather than concentrating on the technologies alone.  This is a tough nut to crack with no easy solutions. It will be interesting to see what the government come up with next when trying to tackle energy efficiency in existing buildings.

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Monday, June 6, 2016

Quality Assurance - How accurate is your documentation?



Robust supervision and training of staff will help them to understand the significance of accurate documentation. Organisations should not lose sight of this, particularly in the current economic climate

Source:www.anarsolutions.com
In previous articles I have discussed the importance of drawings and the consequences that are likely to occur in a construction project if they contain inaccuracies or omissions. Drawings are one of the main components of tender documents, however, as important as they are, they are only a single component of the documentation. Drawings must reflect precisely the detail contained in the specification, and vice versa.  Any conflict between the two will lead to confusion from contractors during the tender period, (assuming that the contractors have read the documentation fully, which does not always happen!), and possibly disputes on site when the selected contractor realises any inconsistency. This can then lead to an embarrassing explanation to the Client, particularly if the contractor tries to claim that his tender price did not include for the inconsistency and ultimately in a dispute for which the Consultant may be held accountable.

Consequently, the process of preparing tender documentation and in fact any documentation that is to leave the office, should be undertaken with care and attention, with organisations having robust quality assurance processes to ensure that the documentation is checked at various stages. Junior and new members of staff need to be trained and supervised throughout the whole process so that they understand the significance of preparing tender documentation and that each component cannot and should not be prepared in isolation. Experienced and senior members of staff should not be excluded from the quality assurance process as they too are likely to make errors or omissions. The point is that through the supervision and quality assurance processes, any errors or omissions are identified before the documentation leaves the office.

Source: builtintelligence.com
In today's challenging environment where profit margins are tight and staffing levels have been squeezed, it would be very easy to allow documentation to be issued as a result of sometimes poor or non existing supervision and quality assurance procedures. One of my former organisation's quality assurance procedures was that no documentation could leave the office until it has been signed off by a senior manager. I can remember many days when members of staff would pile drawings, specifications and all sorts of other documentation onto my desk for checking. Now considering I still had my own workload, reading through and checking all of this documentation was challenging, however because I was signing the  information off I had to take the time too look at it properly, which often meant working long hours, or taking work home. I am sure many reading this article will understand, having been in similar situations themselves. Although it was sometime tempting to skim read documentation and drawings I was always aware of the implications to my organisation and to me personally, if inaccurate documentation was issued. Inevitably, errors in signed off documentation would sometimes be identified, however by adopting robust procedures we kept this to a minimum, and after all we are only human and we will sometimes miss something.

Those who prepare the documentation often do not appreciate the time that is necessary to read through and check what they have produced. In some circumstances members of staff would bring documentation to me for checking and expect me to look at it, there and then and sign it off immediately, because of an imminent deadline (mostly down to their own poor time management!). This is where mistakes can be made, and any organisation that works in this way or allows this to happen, even in isolated cases, are likely to keep their solicitors very busy! Organisations must have clear policies in place so that everyone understands and complies with quality assurance procedures and also has respect for the time of those who will be checking it.

As stated previously robust supervision and training of staff will help everyone (not just technical members of staff), to understand the significance of accurate documentation. Organisations should not lose sight of this, particularly in the current economic climate. Client's are much more likely to cultivate relationships with those who they feel confident will deliver a project effectively and in a professionally manner. Allowing inaccurate documentation to leave your office is not professional and gives a very negative impression. There is a lot of competition out there and it will not take long to sour a relationship, 'you're only as good as your last project', comes to mind, so ignore this at your peril.

Above, I have used the example of tender documentation, as from experience I know the problems that can result from in inconsistencies in documentation. Tender documentation is a topic I will cover in more detail in a future article.

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Information/opinions posted on this site are the personal views of the author and should not be relied upon by any person or any third party without first seeking further professional advice. Also, please scroll down and read the copyright notice at the end of the blog

Sunday, May 22, 2016

How to avoid ‘Cowboy Builders’ – 5 Practical Tips



Trust is something in which we expect that services provided will be as advertised or discussed and that those who claimed to deliver such services will be competent to do so.   Unfortunately, there are endless examples where this trust has been mis-placed, as there are plenty of unscrupulous people out there who are waiting to exploit this situation.

Source:www.hartlepoolmail.co.uk
There are times when we need to engage the services of a builder, contractor, tradesperson, (call them what you will), when we are considering building work or indeed in the event of an emergency. Selection of ‘the right person’ is often determined by random selection based upon a brief search through Yellow Pages, a quick internet search or a card displayed in a newsagent’s window. This leads to us placing our trust in people we know very little about and allowing then access into our homes/buildings. Trust is something in which we expect that services provided will be as advertised/discussed and that those who claimed to deliver such services will be competent to do so. Unfortunately, there are endless examples where this trust has been mis-placed, as there are plenty of unscrupulous people out there who are waiting to exploit this situation.

Knowledge of home repairs and building works is something many people no little to nothing about and therefore prefer to pay to have these types of work carried out. Therefore, if a ‘builder’ is invited to give advice and a quotation, most people will not have the expertise to assess whether the work they are proposing is appropriate or indeed necessary, or whether it represents good value for money or not. So why do we seem to make these rash decisions? This is likely to be due to the urgency of works, our trusting nature, confident, sometimes intimidating behaviour, cheap price etc. It is decisions made on this basis that can lead to very significant problems and disputes, and this approach should be avoided at all costs.

In March 2012 the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) published their Home Repairs and Improvements Toolkit which in the introduction states: ‘In the 18 months from January 2009 to September 2010, advice service Consumer Direct received over 146,000 complaints from consumers about problems they had experienced with home repairs and home improvement projects’. As a result the OFT together with the Citizen’s Advice Bureau, Trading Standards and Local Authority Building Control and Planning departments, launched a campaign to raise awareness amongst consumers around how to manage home repairs and building works.  The toolkit considered that raising public awareness through the media would be the most effective way of dealing with this issue, however, below I offer some practical suggestions that should be considered when engaging building and repair works:

1. Do your homework

Always take the time to do some research to find out about the people you are thinking of using. How long have they been trading?, do they have a website, if so are there examples of their work?, are there previous customer reviews. Have they got a track record for the type of work you require? Do they have the accreditation they claim?  If you cannot find this information on-line, then ask for details of previous similar work that has been carried out and contact details. Good builder/tradespeople are proud of their work and would be more than happy for you to talk to their ‘satisfied customers’. If a builder/tradesperson is not willing to provide this information for you then do not employ them!

2. Obtain alternative quotations

Never appoint a builder/tradesperson on the basis of one quotation. When you go to a supermarket you often have the choice of numerous similar products, which you will assess at in terms of quantity, quality and cost. You will consider these factors and then make an informed choice. This is exactly the same approach you should take when considering home improvements or building works. If you instruct building work from the first quotation you receive it is the same as going into to supermarket and picking up and paying for the first thing you see. How can you be sure you have got good value for money.

3. Get things in writing

All quotations should be received in writing.  Failure to receive a written quotation can lead to disputes and misinterpretation in what you ‘thought’ you had been told and what is actually provided. Legally, there is such thing as a verbal contract, the problem is, how can you prove someone had said something, if they are claiming otherwise?  Written quotations will avoid this, however it would also be wise to have the quotation broken down into as much detail as possible.  A detailed breakdown, with costs attached to each item, will reduce uncertainty, for yourself and the builder. Also, do the costs include VAT?

4. Payment

It is common practice for a builder/tradesperson to request an upfront payment for ‘materials’. I would suggest that as part of accepting the quotation that you also agree a payment schedule, which will include any upfront payments. Payments should be spread over the duration of the works and based on progress with a final payment held back until the work is complete. Never pay large sums of the works cost upfront. Only pay the builder/tradesperson for the work they have completed. Always be mindful that you are in a position that if the builder/tradesperson failed to complete the works (for whatever reason), have you got enough money left in the project to pay someone else to complete it? If the answer is no then you have probably paid too much too soon.

5. Never accept cold callers

Never be tempted into considering ‘deals’ from cold callers. Many of the horror stories we hear relate to those who have felt pressurised into paying for work they did not need, was far too expensive (sometimes extortionate), and completed to a very low standard (or sometimes not completed at all). Avoid cold callers at all costs. We have possibly all been in a situation where we open our front door and are greeted by someone who appears to be plausible and knowledgeable, however do not be fooled! You will undoubtedly be offered the deal of the century, however in life you get what you pay for, so to quote a popular phrase, ‘if it appears to good to be true, it probably is’.

Typical ways in which you may be approached may include:

‘I am working over the road and noticed that you have some damaged tiles on your roof.  While I’m here, I’ve got my ladders and just happen to have some spare tiles, do you want me to take a look?  Answer - NO!

‘I’ve just re-surfaced your neighbour’s driveway and I’ve got materials left over. While I’m here I can do you’re drive for a really cheap price, but I can only do it today. What do you think?  Answer – NO!

‘We are in the area today only and offering significant unrepeatable discounts for a small number of customers who agree for us to use your property for marketing purposes. We will take pictures of the work we do and include it in our marketing literature’ Answer – NO!

‘You will need to sign up now. The manufactures price is increasing after today’Answer – NO!

‘I will give you a good deal for cash’ Answer – NO! - If this is suggested it should immediately raise alarm bells as, firstly it is illegal and will undoubtedly be work ‘off the books’, thereby avoiding tax and VAT payments. Anyone who is prepared to suggest work in this way is not the type of person you can have an faith or confidence in as there honesty is already compromised.


Please feel free to share this article and other articles on this site with friends, family and colleagues who you think would be interested

Information/opinions posted on this site are the personal views of the author and should not be relied upon by any person or any third party without first seeking further professional advice. Also, please scroll down and read the copyright notice at the end of the blog

Monday, May 16, 2016

10 Tallest Buildings in the World - In Pictures



The World's 10 Current Completed Tallest Buildings (at May 2016)

In last week’s article I discussed the human desire to construct high rise buildings and posed the question: Is there a limit to how high we can build?’.  The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), have formulated a list from their database (link) which shows completed, under construction and planned ‘skyscrapers’ over the coming years, demonstrating that construction and demand for high rise buildings is on the increase.   This week I wanted to publish details of the 10 current completed highest buildings in the world, as detailed the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) database:

Number 1

Burj  Khalifa  - Dubai - UAE  - 828 Metres  - 2717 Feet - 163 Floors - Completed 2010 

Source: foundtheworld.com
Number 2

Shanghai Tower - Shanghai - China - 632 Metres - 2073 Feet - 128 Floors - Completed 2015


Source:www.latimes.com
Number 3


Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel - Mecca - Saudi Arabia - 601 Metres - 1972 Feet - 120 Floors - Completed 2012

Source: www.independent.co.uk
Number 4

One World Trade Centre - New York - USA - 
451 Metres - 1776 Feet - 94 Floors - Completed 2015

Source: www.aecom.com
Number 5

Taipei 101 - Taipei - China - 508 Metres - 1667 Feet - 101 Floors - Completed 2004 

Source: www.taipei-101.com.tw
Number 6

Shanghai World Financial Centre - Shanghai - China - 
492 Metres - 1614 Feet - 101 Floors - Completed 2008
Source: www.telegraph.co.uk
Number 7

International Commerce Centre - Hong Kong - 484 Metres - 1588 Feet - 108 Floors -Completed 2010

Source: www.architecturalrecord.com
Numbers 8&9 

Petronas Towers - Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia - 452 Metres - 1482 Feet - 88 Floors -Completed 1998

Source: blog.123hotels.com
Number 10

Zifeng Tower - Nanjing - China - 450 Metres - 1476 Feet - 89 Floors - Completed 2010 

Source :skyscrapercenter.com

Please feel free to share this article and other articles on this site with friends, family and colleagues who you think would be interested

Information/opinions posted on this site are the personal views of the author and should not be relied upon by any person or any third party without first seeking further professional advice. Also, please scroll down and read the copyright notice at the end of the blog

Monday, May 9, 2016

Is there a limit to how high we can build?



On May 6th 1954 when Roger Bannister broke the four minute mile, there were many who thought that this would never be beaten.  The record has been broken a further eighteen times since then..... This also seems to be the case with high rise buildings, motivated by our human desire ‘to go one better’ than the previous best.

Burj Khalifa Tower - Source: www.youtube.com
Sometimes we have to stand in awe at the creativity and innovativity of the human race, where we are constantly stretching the boundaries of possibility. This is well demonstrated around the globe with the large amount of high rise buildings that are either in the process of being constructed, or have actually been completed. Demand for high rise buildings is on the increase, which is demonstrated by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), who have formulated a list from their database which shows completed, under construction and planned ‘skyscrapers’ over the coming years.  Click on this (link) to take a look at this list where you will notice that if all of the proposed and under construction buildings are completed, then by 2021, only three of the current top 10 buildings (Burj Kalifa, Shanghai Tower and Makkah Royal Clock Tower), will remain in the top 10 buildings, and in fact only five of the current top 20 buildings, will still appear in the top 20 by 2022.  These statistics are staggering, however they demonstrate our inate desire to build big.  At the top of the list of proposed tall buildings is the Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This is now under construciton and projected for completion in 2018. It is expected to cost in excess of $1.2bn, and form the first phase of a wider Kingdom City scheme that is estimated in the region of $2bn.  Kingdom Tower will rise to 1000 metres, which will exceed the current completed tallest building (Burj Kalifa – Dubai), by a further 172 metres.

The tallest building in the European Union is currently The Shard’ in London. Completed in 2012. The building stands at what now seems to be a modest 309.6 metres, when you take into consideration the buildings on the CTBUH list.  In fact if all of the under construction and planned buildings on the list are completed, The Shard will not even appear in the top hundred and fifty buildings in the World by 2021, even though it currently sits as the 80th highest completed building in the World.

Kingdom Tower, Jeddah - Under Construction - Source: www.youtube.com
There are a number of reason that may motivate investment in a high rise building, including, scarcity of land in large cities (often their central business districts), increasing demand for business and residential space, economic growth, human aspiration to build higher, innovations  in structural systems and products and ultimately prestige. However, planning and constructing a large building comes with many challenges that are less of an issue for smaller buildings.  This includes things such as finance, planning restrictions, energy use (although many new buildings are adopting renewable and other technologies), structural considerations, circulation in what effectively becomes a vertical street, external fa├žade (fixing, maintenance and cleaning), internal environment to achieve human comfort, and so on.  The more high rise buildings that are built, then the more these issues are better understood, however as we stretch the boundaries and construct even higher, then we are likely to encounter further obstacles that we may not have previously contemplated.

As an example let us consider one of the fundamental needs, water supply, in a very high building.  If we consider the provision of a water supply pipe from the bottom of the building to the top, it is easy to imagine why this could prove to be problematic.  As previously stated the current highest building in the World is 828 metres high.  Therefore trying to ensure that the water supply travels such a long distance in a vertical direction and can be used at the right pressure when needed is never going to be straightforward:

‘Plumbing is one of the more challenging problems to solve due to the loss in pressure as water travels up a vertical pipe. Plumbing engineers found out that as you lift water above a datum, you lose 1 pound per square inch for every 2.3 feet of elevation. This small but incremental loss makes achieving high water pressure at the top of a water column very difficult. Most water fixtures require at least 25 psi to operate or flush properly, so measures to ensure consistent water pressure throughout the building must be implemented. As the building get taller, another problem arises as the water pressure at the bottom of a vertical pipe becomes too great for safe operation and building codes’
                       
‘The early solution to this problem was a water tank mounted on the top of a building with fill pumps at the bottom of the building.  Water is supplied to occupants through a simple gravity down feed system.  Today, a system of pressure-reducing valves and sub-risers are used to manage the inconsistent water pressure throughout a skyscraper. Pressure-reducing valves reduce the pressure at the bottom of the building, while sub-risers increase the pressure for the skyscrapers upper floors. Today’s systems lack a main tank, but rather integrate the whole system within a buildings walls and basement’ (Source: http://www.allaboutskyscrapers.com/)

The above discusses a single issue to demonstrate the complexity of design issues in respect of building higher. Other issues such as sewage, lifts, emergency escape, fire fighting provision, earthquakes (and many others ) etc. could equally have been selected, as they pose significant design challenges for very high buildings.  Despite this it appears from buildings on the CTBUH list, that these issues are not standing in the way of buildings becoming evermore higher. This then poses a question. ‘Is there a limit to how high we can build?’ Well, at present it appears not, but surely there has to be a limit?  On May 6th 1954 when Roger Bannister broke the four minute mile, there were many who thought that this would never be beaten.  The record has since been broken a further eighteen times since then, with the current record being held by Moroccan, Hicham El Guerrouj achieving a time of 3.43.13 in Rome in 1999.  This also seems to be the case with high rise buildings, motivated by our human desire ‘to go one better’ than the previous best.

Who knows what human ingenuity will produce in the future? The possibilities seem endless. In fact take a look at the list of ‘all’ tall buildings on the CTBUH database and you will see that there is a ‘vision’ to build at a height of 4000 metres in Tokyo, Japan. This is four times higher than the Jeddah Tower which will become the new highest building in the World when completed in a few years time. This vision appears hard to believe however I am sure many thought the same about a human being running a mile in less than four minutes prior to 1953, so you never know……..

Try to take the time to look at this fascinating documentary which shows how the current highest building in the World was constructed.


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